4.1.12 Traffic Light

Introduction

In this project, we will use LED lights of three colors to realize the change of traffic lights and a four-digit 7-segment display will be used to display the timing of each traffic state.

Schematic Diagram

T-Board Name

physical

wiringPi

BCM

GPIO17

Pin 11

0

17

GPIO27

Pin 13

2

27

GPIO22

Pin 15

3

22

SPIMOSI

Pin 19

12

10

GPIO18

Pin 12

1

18

GPIO23

Pin 16

4

23

GPIO24

Pin 18

5

24

GPIO25

Pin 22

6

25

SPICE0

Pin 24

10

8

SPICE1

Pin 26

11

7

../_images/Schematic_three_one7.png

Experimental Procedures

Step 1: Build the circuit.

../_images/image254.png

Step 2: Change directory.

cd /home/pi/raphael-kit/python/

Step 3: Run.

sudo python3 4.1.12_TrafficLight.py

As the code runs, LEDs will simulate the color changing of traffic lights. Firstly, the red LED lights up for 60s, then the green LED lights up for 30s; next, the yellow LED lights up for 5s. After that, the red LED lights up for 60s once again. In this way, this series of actions will be executed repeatedly. Meanwhile, the 4-digit 7-segment display displays the countdown time continuously.

Code

Note

You can Modify/Reset/Copy/Run/Stop the code below. But before that, you need to go to source code path like raphael-kit/python. After modifying the code, you can run it directly to see the effect.

#!/usr/bin/env python3

import RPi.GPIO as GPIO
import time
import threading

#define the pins connect to 74HC595
SDI   = 24      #serial data input(DS)
RCLK  = 23     #memory clock input(STCP)
SRCLK = 18      #shift register clock input(SHCP)
number = (0xc0,0xf9,0xa4,0xb0,0x99,0x92,0x82,0xf8,0x80,0x90)

placePin = (10,22,27,17)
ledPin =(25,8,7)

greenLight = 30
yellowLight = 5
redLight = 60
lightColor=("Red","Green","Yellow")

colorState=0
counter = 60
timer1 = 0


def setup():
    GPIO.setmode(GPIO.BCM)
    GPIO.setup(SDI, GPIO.OUT)
    GPIO.setup(RCLK, GPIO.OUT)
    GPIO.setup(SRCLK, GPIO.OUT)
    for pin in placePin:
        GPIO.setup(pin,GPIO.OUT)
    for pin in ledPin:
        GPIO.setup(pin,GPIO.OUT)
    global timer1
    timer1 = threading.Timer(1.0,timer)
    timer1.start()

def clearDisplay():
    for i in range(8):
        GPIO.output(SDI, 1)
        GPIO.output(SRCLK, GPIO.HIGH)
        GPIO.output(SRCLK, GPIO.LOW)
    GPIO.output(RCLK, GPIO.HIGH)
    GPIO.output(RCLK, GPIO.LOW)

def hc595_shift(data):
    for i in range(8):
        GPIO.output(SDI, 0x80 & (data << i))
        GPIO.output(SRCLK, GPIO.HIGH)
        GPIO.output(SRCLK, GPIO.LOW)
    GPIO.output(RCLK, GPIO.HIGH)
    GPIO.output(RCLK, GPIO.LOW)

def pickDigit(digit):
    for i in placePin:
        GPIO.output(i,GPIO.LOW)
    GPIO.output(placePin[digit], GPIO.HIGH)

def timer():        #timer function
    global counter
    global colorState
    global timer1
    timer1 = threading.Timer(1.0,timer)
    timer1.start()
    counter-=1
    if (counter is 0):
        if(colorState is 0):
            counter= greenLight
        if(colorState is 1):
            counter=yellowLight
        if (colorState is 2):
            counter=redLight
        colorState=(colorState+1)%3
    print ("counter : %d    color: %s "%(counter,lightColor[colorState]))

def lightup():
    global colorState
    for i in range(0,3):
        GPIO.output(ledPin[i], GPIO.HIGH)
    GPIO.output(ledPin[colorState], GPIO.LOW)

def display():
    global counter

    a = counter % 10000//1000 + counter % 1000//100
    b = counter % 10000//1000 + counter % 1000//100 + counter % 100//10
    c = counter % 10000//1000 + counter % 1000//100 + counter % 100//10 + counter % 10

    if (counter % 10000//1000 == 0):
        clearDisplay()
    else:
        clearDisplay()
        pickDigit(3)
        hc595_shift(number[counter % 10000//1000])

    if (a == 0):
        clearDisplay()
    else:
        clearDisplay()
        pickDigit(2)
        hc595_shift(number[counter % 1000//100])

    if (b == 0):
        clearDisplay()
    else:
        clearDisplay()
        pickDigit(1)
        hc595_shift(number[counter % 100//10])

    if(c == 0):
        clearDisplay()
    else:
        clearDisplay()
        pickDigit(0)
        hc595_shift(number[counter % 10])

def loop():
    while True:
        display()
        lightup()

def destroy():   # When "Ctrl+C" is pressed, the function is executed.
    global timer1
    GPIO.cleanup()
    timer1.cancel()      #cancel the timer

if __name__ == '__main__': # Program starting from here
    setup()
    try:
        loop()
    except KeyboardInterrupt:
        destroy()

Code Explanation

SDI   = 24      #serial data input(DS)
RCLK  = 23     #memory clock input(STCP)
SRCLK = 18      #shift register clock input(SHCP)
number = (0xc0,0xf9,0xa4,0xb0,0x99,0x92,0x82,0xf8,0x80,0x90)
placePin = (10,22,27,17)

def clearDisplay():
def hc595_shift(data):
def pickDigit(digit):
def display():

These codes are used to realize the function of number display of 4-Digit 7-Segment. Refer to chapter 1.1.5 of the document for more details. Here, we use the codes to display countdown of traffic light time.

ledPin =(25,8,7)
colorState=0

def lightup():
    global colorState
    for i in range(0,3):
        GPIO.output(ledPin[i], GPIO.HIGH)
    GPIO.output(ledPin[colorState], GPIO.LOW)

The codes are used to switch the LED on and off.

greenLight = 30
yellowLight = 5
redLight = 60
lightColor=("Red","Green","Yellow")

colorState=0
counter = 60
timer1 = 0

def timer():        #timer function
    global counter
    global colorState
    global timer1
    timer1 = threading.Timer(1.0,timer)
    timer1.start()
    counter-=1
    if (counter is 0):
        if(colorState is 0):
            counter= greenLight
        if(colorState is 1):
            counter=yellowLight
        if (colorState is 2):
            counter=redLight
        colorState=(colorState+1)%3
    print ("counter : %d    color: %s "%(counter,lightColor[colorState]))

The codes are used to switch the timer on and off. Refer to chapter 1.1.5 for more details. Here, when the timer returns to zero, colorState will be switched so as to switch LED, and the timer will be assigned to a new value.

def setup():
    # ...
    global timer1
    timer1 = threading.Timer(1.0,timer)
    timer1.start()

def loop():
    while True:
        display()
        lightup()

def destroy():   # When "Ctrl+C" is pressed, the function is executed.
    global timer1
    GPIO.cleanup()
    timer1.cancel()      #cancel the timer

if __name__ == '__main__': # Program starting from here
    setup()
    try:
        loop()
    except KeyboardInterrupt:
        destroy()

In setup() function, start the timer. In loop() function, a while True is used: call the relative functions of 4-Digit 7-Segment and LED circularly.

Phenomenon Picture

../_images/image255.jpeg