3.1.6 Motion Control

Introduction

In this lesson, we will make a simple motion sensing and controlling device. The MPU6050 is used as a sensor and the stepper motor as a controlled device. With the MPU6050 mounted on the glove, you can control the stepper motor by rotating your wrist.

Components

_images/list_Motion_Control.png

Schematic Diagram

T-Board Name

physical

wiringPi

BCM

GPIO18

Pin 12

1

18

GPIO23

Pin 16

4

23

GPIO24

Pin 18

5

24

GPIO25

Pin 22

6

25

SDA1

Pin 3

SCL1

Pin 5

_images/Schematic_three_one6.png

Experimental Procedures

Step 1: Build the circuit.

3.1.6 Motion Control_bb

For C Language Users

Step 2: Go to the folder of the code.

cd /home/pi/davinci-kit-for-raspberry-pi/c/3.1.6/

Step 3: Compile the code.

gcc 3.1.6_MotionControl.c -lwiringPi -lm

Step 4: Run the executable file.

sudo ./a.out

As the code runs, if the tilt angle of mpu6050 on the Y-axis is larger than 45 ℃, the stepper motor rotates anticlockwise; if less than -45 ℃, the stepper motor rotates clockwise.

Note

If it does not work after running, or there is an error prompt: “wiringPi.h: No such file or directory”, please refer to C code is not working?.

Code Explanation

double mpu6050(){
    acclX = read_word_2c(0x3B);
    acclY = read_word_2c(0x3D);
    acclZ = read_word_2c(0x3F);
    acclX_scaled = acclX / 16384.0;
    acclY_scaled = acclY / 16384.0;
    acclZ_scaled = acclZ / 16384.0;
    double angle=get_y_rotation(acclX_scaled, acclY_scaled, acclZ_scaled);
    return angle;
}

mpu6050 gets the tilt angle in the direction of the Y-axis.

void rotary(char direction){
    if(direction == 'c'){
        for(int j=0;j<4;j++){
            for(int i=0;i<4;i++)
                {digitalWrite(motorPin[i],0x99>>j & (0x08>>i));}
            delayMicroseconds(stepSpeed);
        }
    }
    else if(direction =='a'){
        for(int j=0;j<4;j++){
            for(int i=0;i<4;i++)
                {digitalWrite(motorPin[i],0x99<<j & (0x80>>i));}
            delayMicroseconds(stepSpeed);
        }
    }
}

If the received direction key is ‘c’, the stepper motor rotates clockwise; if the key is ‘a’, the motor rotates anticlockwise. Refer to 1.3.3 Stepper Motor for more details about the calculation of the rotating direction of the stepper motor.

int main()
{
    setup();
    double angle;
    while(1) {
        angle = mpu6050();
        if (angle >=45){rotary('a');}
        else if (angle<=-45){rotary('c');}
    }
    return 0;
}

The tilt angle in the direction of the Y-axis is read from mpu6050, and if it’s larger than 45 ℃, the stepper motor rotates anticlockwise; if less than -45 ℃, the stepper motor rotates clockwise.

For Python Language Users

Step 2: Go to the folder of the code.

cd /home/pi/davinci-kit-for-raspberry-pi/python/

Step 3: Run the executable file.

sudo python3 3.1.6_MotionControl.py

As the code runs, if the tilt angle of mpu6050 on the Y-axis is larger than 45 ℃, the stepper motor rotates anticlockwise; if less than -45 ℃, the stepper motor rotates clockwise.

Code

Note

You can Modify/Reset/Copy/Run/Stop the code below. But before that, you need to go to source code path like davinci-kit-for-raspberry-pi/python.

import RPi.GPIO as GPIO
import smbus
import math
import time



# Power management registers
power_mgmt_1 = 0x6b
power_mgmt_2 = 0x6c

bus = smbus.SMBus(1)
address = 0x68
bus.write_byte_data(address, power_mgmt_1, 0)

#Stepper motor pins
motorPin = (18,23,24,25)
rolePerMinute =15
stepsPerRevolution = 2048
stepSpeed = (60/rolePerMinute)/stepsPerRevolution

#mpu6050
def read_byte(adr):
    return bus.read_byte_data(address, adr)

def read_word(adr):
    high = bus.read_byte_data(address, adr)
    low = bus.read_byte_data(address, adr+1)
    val = (high << 8) + low
    return val

def read_word_2c(adr):
    val = read_word(adr)
    if (val >= 0x8000):
        return -((65535 - val) + 1)
    else:
        return val

def dist(a,b):
    return math.sqrt((a*a)+(b*b))

def get_y_rotation(x,y,z):
    radians = math.atan2(x, dist(y,z))
    return -math.degrees(radians)

def get_x_rotation(x,y,z):
    radians = math.atan2(y, dist(x,z))
    return math.degrees(radians)

def mpu6050():
    accel_xout = read_word_2c(0x3b)
    accel_yout = read_word_2c(0x3d)
    accel_zout = read_word_2c(0x3f)
    accel_xout_scaled = accel_xout / 16384.0
    accel_yout_scaled = accel_yout / 16384.0
    accel_zout_scaled = accel_zout / 16384.0
    angle=get_y_rotation(accel_xout_scaled, accel_yout_scaled, accel_zout_scaled)
    return angle

#Stepper Motor
def rotary(direction):
    if(direction == 'c'):
        for j in range(4):
            for i in range(4):
                GPIO.output(motorPin[i],0x99>>j & (0x08>>i))
            time.sleep(stepSpeed)

    elif(direction == 'a'):
        for j in range(4):
            for i in range(4):
                GPIO.output(motorPin[i],0x99<<j & (0x80>>i))
            time.sleep(stepSpeed)


def setup():
    GPIO.setwarnings(False)
    GPIO.setmode(GPIO.BCM)
    for i in motorPin:
        GPIO.setup(i, GPIO.OUT)


def loop():
    while True:
        angle=mpu6050()
        if angle >=45 :
            rotary('a')
        elif angle <=-45:
            rotary('c')

def destroy():
    GPIO.cleanup()

if __name__ == '__main__':
    setup()
    try:
        loop()
    except KeyboardInterrupt:
        destroy()

Code Explanation

def mpu6050():
    accel_xout = read_word_2c(0x3b)
    accel_yout = read_word_2c(0x3d)
    accel_zout = read_word_2c(0x3f)
    accel_xout_scaled = accel_xout / 16384.0
    accel_yout_scaled = accel_yout / 16384.0
    accel_zout_scaled = accel_zout / 16384.0
    angle=get_y_rotation(accel_xout_scaled, accel_yout_scaled, accel_zout_scaled)
    return angle

mpu6050 gets the tilt angle in the direction of the Y-axis.

def rotary(direction):
    if(direction == 'c'):
        for j in range(4):
            for i in range(4):
                GPIO.output(motorPin[i],0x99>>j & (0x08>>i))
            time.sleep(stepSpeed)

    elif(direction == 'a'):
        for j in range(4):
            for i in range(4):
                GPIO.output(motorPin[i],0x99<<j & (0x80>>i))
            time.sleep(stepSpeed)

If the received direction key is ‘c’, the stepper motor rotates clockwise; if the key is ‘a’, the motor rotates anticlockwise. Refer to 1.3.3 Stepper Motor for more details about the calculation of the rotating direction of the stepper motor.

def loop():
    while True:
        angle=mpu6050()
        if angle >=45 :
            rotary('a')
        elif angle <=-45:
            rotary('c')

The tilt angle in the direction of the Y-axis is read from mpu6050, and if it’s larger than 45 ℃, rotary() is called to let the stepper motor rotate anticlockwise; if less than -45 ℃, the stepper motor rotates clockwise.

Phenomenon Picture

_images/image252.jpeg