Note

Hello, welcome to the SunFounder Raspberry Pi & Arduino & ESP32 Enthusiasts Community on Facebook! Dive deeper into Raspberry Pi, Arduino, and ESP32 with fellow enthusiasts.

Why Join?

  • Expert Support: Solve post-sale issues and technical challenges with help from our community and team.

  • Learn & Share: Exchange tips and tutorials to enhance your skills.

  • Exclusive Previews: Get early access to new product announcements and sneak peeks.

  • Special Discounts: Enjoy exclusive discounts on our newest products.

  • Festive Promotions and Giveaways: Take part in giveaways and holiday promotions.

👉 Ready to explore and create with us? Click [here] and join today!

2.2.2 Thermistor¶

Introduction¶

Just like photoresistor can sense light, thermistor is a temperature sensitive electronic device that can be used for realizing functions of temperature control, such as making a heat alarm.

Required Components¶

In this project, we need the following components.

../_images/list_2.2.2_thermistor.png

It’s definitely convenient to buy a whole kit, here’s the link:

Name

ITEMS IN THIS KIT

LINK

Raphael Kit

337

Raphael Kit

You can also buy them separately from the links below.

COMPONENT INTRODUCTION

PURCHASE LINK

GPIO Extension Board

BUY

Breadboard

BUY

Jumper Wires

BUY

Resistor

BUY

Thermistor

BUY

ADC0834

-

Schematic Diagram¶

../_images/image323.png ../_images/image324.png

Experimental Procedures¶

Step 1: Build the circuit.

../_images/image202.png

Step 2: Go to the folder of the code.

cd ~/raphael-kit/c/2.2.2/

Step 3: Compile the code.

gcc 2.2.2_Thermistor.c -lwiringPi -lm

Note

-lm is to load the library math. Do not omit, or you will make an error.

Step 4: Run the executable file.

sudo ./a.out

With the code run, the thermistor detects ambient temperature which will be printed on the screen once it finishes the program calculation.

Note

If it does not work after running, or there is an error prompt: "wiringPi.h: No such file or directory", please refer to Install and Check the WiringPi.

Code

#include <wiringPi.h>
#include <stdio.h>
#include <math.h>

typedef unsigned char uchar;
typedef unsigned int uint;

#define     ADC_CS    0
#define     ADC_CLK   1
#define     ADC_DIO   2

uchar get_ADC_Result(uint channel)
{
    uchar i;
    uchar dat1=0, dat2=0;
    int sel = channel > 1 & 1;
    int odd = channel & 1;

    pinMode(ADC_DIO, OUTPUT);
    digitalWrite(ADC_CS, 0);
    // Start bit
    digitalWrite(ADC_CLK,0);
    digitalWrite(ADC_DIO,1);    delayMicroseconds(2);
    digitalWrite(ADC_CLK,1);    delayMicroseconds(2);
    //Single End mode
    digitalWrite(ADC_CLK,0);
    digitalWrite(ADC_DIO,1);    delayMicroseconds(2);
    digitalWrite(ADC_CLK,1);    delayMicroseconds(2);
    // ODD
    digitalWrite(ADC_CLK,0);
    digitalWrite(ADC_DIO,odd);  delayMicroseconds(2);
    digitalWrite(ADC_CLK,1);    delayMicroseconds(2);
    //Select
    digitalWrite(ADC_CLK,0);
    digitalWrite(ADC_DIO,sel);    delayMicroseconds(2);
    digitalWrite(ADC_CLK,1);

    digitalWrite(ADC_DIO,1);    delayMicroseconds(2);
    digitalWrite(ADC_CLK,0);
    digitalWrite(ADC_DIO,1);    delayMicroseconds(2);

    for(i=0;i<8;i++)
    {
        digitalWrite(ADC_CLK,1);    delayMicroseconds(2);
        digitalWrite(ADC_CLK,0);    delayMicroseconds(2);

        pinMode(ADC_DIO, INPUT);
        dat1=dat1<<1 | digitalRead(ADC_DIO);
    }

    for(i=0;i<8;i++)
    {
        dat2 = dat2 | ((uchar)(digitalRead(ADC_DIO))<<i);
        digitalWrite(ADC_CLK,1);    delayMicroseconds(2);
        digitalWrite(ADC_CLK,0);    delayMicroseconds(2);
    }

    digitalWrite(ADC_CS,1);
    pinMode(ADC_DIO, OUTPUT);
    return(dat1==dat2) ? dat1 : 0;
}

int main(void)
{
    unsigned char analogVal;
double Vr, Rt, temp, cel, Fah;
    if(wiringPiSetup() == -1){ //when initialize wiring failed,print messageto screen
        printf("setup wiringPi failed !");
        return 1;
    }
    pinMode(ADC_CS,  OUTPUT);
    pinMode(ADC_CLK, OUTPUT);

    while(1){
        analogVal = get_ADC_Result(0);
        Vr = 5 * (double)(analogVal) / 255;
        Rt = 10000 * (double)(Vr) / (5 - (double)(Vr));
        temp = 1 / (((log(Rt/10000)) / 3950)+(1 / (273.15 + 25)));
        cel = temp - 273.15;
        Fah = cel * 1.8 +32;
        printf("Celsius: %.2f C  Fahrenheit: %.2f F\n", cel, Fah);
        delay(100);
    }
    return 0;
}

Code Explanation

#include <math.h>

There is a C numerics library which declares a set of functions to compute common mathematical operations and transformations.

analogVal = get_ADC_Result(0);

This function is used to read the value of the thermistor.

Vr = 5 * (double)(analogVal) / 255;
Rt = 10000 * (double)(Vr) / (5 - (double)(Vr));
temp = 1 / (((log(Rt/10000)) / 3950)+(1 / (273.15 + 25)));
cel = temp - 273.15;
Fah = cel * 1.8 +32;
printf("Celsius: %.2f C  Fahrenheit: %.2f F\n", cel, Fah);

These calculations convert the thermistor values into Celsius values.

Vr = 5 * (double)(analogVal) / 255;
Rt = 10000 * (double)(Vr) / (5 - (double)(Vr));

These two lines of codes are calculating the voltage distribution with the read value analog so as to get Rt (resistance of thermistor).

temp = 1 / (((log(Rt/10000)) / 3950)+(1 / (273.15 + 25)));

This code refers to plugging Rt into the formula TK=1/(ln(RT/RN)/B+1/TN) to get Kelvin temperature.

temp = temp - 273.15;

Convert Kelvin temperature into degree Celsius.

Fah = cel * 1.8 +32;

Convert degree Celsius into Fahrenheit.

printf("Celsius: %.2f C  Fahrenheit: %.2f F\n", cel, Fah);

Print centigrade degree, Fahrenheit degree and their units on the display.

Phenomenon Picture¶

../_images/image203.jpeg