Operators¶
Operators are used to perform operations on variables and values.
Arithmetic Operators¶
You can use arithmetic operators to do some common mathematical operations.
Operator 
Name 

+ 
Addition 
 
Subtraction 
* 
Multiplication 
/ 
Division 
% 
Modulus 
** 
Exponentiation 
// 
Floor division 
x = 5
y = 3
a = x + y
b = x  y
c = x * y
d = x / y
e = x % y
f = x ** y
g = x // y
print(a)
print(b)
print(c)
print(d)
print(e)
print(f)
print(g)
>>> %Run c $EDITOR_CONTENT
8
2
15
1.666667
2
125
1
8
2
15
>>>
Assignment operators¶
Assignment operators can used to assign values to variables.
Operator 
Example 
Same As 

= 
a = 6 
a =6 
+= 
a += 6 
a = a + 6 
= 
a = 6 
a = a  6 
*= 
a *= 6 
a = a * 6 
/= 
a /= 6 
a = a / 6 
%= 
a %= 6 
a = a % 6 
**= 
a **= 6 
a = a ** 6 
//= 
a //= 6 
a = a // 6 
&= 
a &= 6 
a = a & 6 
= 
a = 6 
a = a  6 
^= 
a ^= 6 
a = a ^ 6 
>>= 
a >>= 6 
a = a >> 6 
<<= 
a <<= 6 
a = a << 6 
a = 6
a *= 6
print(a)
>>> %Run test.py
36
>>>
Comparison Operators¶
Comparison operators are used to compare two values.
Operator 
Name 

== 
Equal 
!= 
Not equal 
< 
Less than 
> 
Greater than 
>= 
Greater than or equal to 
<= 
Less than or equal to 
a = 6
b = 8
print(a>b)
>>> %Run test.py
False
>>>
Return False, beause the a is less than the b.
Logical Operators¶
Logical operators are used to combine conditional statements.
Operator 
Description 

and 
Returns True if both statements are true 
or 
Returns True if one of the statements is true 
not 
Reverse the result, returns False if the result is true 
a = 6
print(a > 2 and a < 8)
>>> %Run c $EDITOR_CONTENT
True
>>>
Identity Operators¶
Identity operators are used to compare the objects, not if they are equal, but if they are actually the same object, with the same memory location.
Operator 
Description 

is 
Returns True if both variables are the same object 
is not 
Returns True if both variables are not the same object 
a = ["hello", "welcome"]
b = ["hello", "welcome"]
c = a
print(a is c)
# returns True because z is the same object as x
print(a is b)
# returns False because x is not the same object as y, even if they have the same content
print(a == b)
# returns True because x is equal to y
>>> %Run c $EDITOR_CONTENT
True
False
True
>>>
Membership Operators¶
Membership operators are used to test if a sequence is presented in an object.
Operator 
Description 

in 
Returns True if a sequence with the specified value is present in the object 
not in 
Returns True if a sequence with the specified value is not present in the object 
a = ["hello", "welcome", "Goodmorning"]
print("welcome" in a)
>>> %Run c $EDITOR_CONTENT
True
>>>
Bitwise Operators¶
Bitwise operators are used to compare (binary) numbers.
Operator 
Name 
Description 

& 
AND 
Sets each bit to 1 if both bits are 1 
OR 
Sets each bit to 1 if one of two bits is 1 

^ 
XOR 
Sets each bit to 1 if only one of two bits is 1 
~ 
NOT 
Inverts all the bits 
<< 
Zero fill left shift 
Shift left by pushing zeros in from the right and let the leftmost bits fall off 
>> 
Signed right shift 
Shift right by pushing copies of the leftmost bit in from the left, and let the rightmost bits fall off 
num = 2
print(num & 1)
print(num  1)
print(num << 1)
>>> %Run c $EDITOR_CONTENT
0
3
4
>>>